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Iran, US Set to Dig Rare Elamite City

A joint team of Iranian and American archeologists are set to start the latest season of excavation in the historical city of Enshan, left from the Elamite era, Iranian Cultural Heritage News Agency reported.

It is one of the rare cities remained from the period and already numerous seasons of excavations have yielded precious artifacts.

Starting from next week, the experts hope to unravel some questions about the Iranian civilization up to the second millennium B.C., said Masoud Azarnoush, head of the research center at Iran's Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization (CHTO).

Five American archeologists, some from the Pennsylvania University, would assist their Iranian counterparts in the latest season of excavation.

The Iranian Plateau did not experience the rise of urban, literate civilization in the late 4th and early 3rd millennia on the Mesopotamian pattern but the lowland Khuzestan did. It was the Elamite Civilization.

Geographically, Elam included more than Khuzestan; it was a combination of the lowlands and the immediate highland areas to the north and east. Elamite strength was based on an ability to hold these various areas together under a coordinated government that permitted the maximum interchange of the natural resources unique to each region. Traditionally this was done through a federated governmental structure.

Closely related to that form of government was the Elamite system of inheritance and power distribution. The normal pattern of government was that of an overlord ruling over vassal princes. In earliest times the overlord lived in Susa, which functioned as a federal capital. With him ruled his brother closest in age, the viceroy, who usually had his seat of government in the native city of the currently ruling dynasty. This viceroy was heir presumptive to the overlord. Yet a third official, the regent or prince of Susa (the district), shared power with the overlord and the viceroy. He was usually the overlord's son or, if no son was available, his nephew. On the death of the overlord, the viceroy became overlord. The prince of Susa remained in office, and the brother of the old viceroy nearest to him in age became the new viceroy. Only if all brothers were dead was the prince of Susa promoted to viceroy, thus enabling the overlord to name his own son (or nephew) as the new prince of Susa. Such a complicated system of governmental checks, balances, and power inheritance often broke down despite bilateral descent and levirate marriage (i.e., the compulsory marriage of a widow to her deceased husband's brother). What is remarkable is how often the system did work; it was only in the Middle and Neo-Elamite periods that sons more often succeeded fathers to power.

Elamite history can be divided into three main phases: the Old, Middle, and Late, or Neo-Elamite, periods. In all periods Elam was closely involved with Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria, sometimes through peaceful trade, more often through war. In like manner, Elam was often a participant in events on the Iranian Plateau. Both involvements were related to the combined need of all the lowland civilizations to control the warlike peoples to the east and to exploit the economic resources of the plateau.

In the Bronze Age, while cultural centers certainly existed in various parts of Persia (e.g. Astrabad and Tappeh Hissar near Damghan in the north-east), the kingdom of Elam in the south-west, was the most important.

Metal-work and the art of glazing bricks particularly flourished in Elam, and from inscribed tablets we can deduce that there was a great industry in weaving, tapestry, and embroidery. Elamite metal-work was particularly accomplished.

... Payvand News - 10/11/04 ... --

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