Photos by Amin Nazari, ISNA
Arvand Rud (Rud is Persian for River), is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 kilometres in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq. The southern end of the river constitutes the border between Iraq and Iran down to the mouth of the river as it discharges into the Persian Gulf.
ARVAND-RŪD, name given to the river Tigris in some passages in the Mid. Pers. books (Zātspram 6.20, 34.7; Pahlavi Vd. 1.19) and a verse in the Šāh-nāma (ed. Borūḵīm, I, p. 51, see below; see also Bahār, Asāṭīr, p. 211). The use of this name to designate the Šaṭṭ al-ʿArab began in the later Pahlavi period and persisted after the revolution of 1357 Š./1978-79. The word arvand "swift" (Av. aurvant-, AirWb., cols. 200-01) appears in New Persian personal names such as Arvand-asb and Arvand-dast, and in Armenian and Greek (Ervand and Orontes, see Hübschmann, Armen. Etymologie, pp. 39-40; Justi, Namenbuch, pp. 41, 42, 234), but no mention of a river by this name is made in the Avesta or in the Bundahišn, where, in the chapter on rivers, the river Tigris is mentioned by name (Diglat, Bundahišn 11.6); nor does it occur in the inscriptions of Darius the Great at Bīsotūn (Behistun), where the river Tigris is mentioned twice (DB 1.85, 88). Comparison of the passage in Zātspram (6.20) with an almost identical passage in the Bundahišn (11.1-2; tr. West, SBE 5, pp. 74-75) clearly points to a confusion of the rivers Arang and Arvand, either as a clerical error due to the virtual identity of the two names in the Pahlavi script (cf. Markwart, Wehrot und Arang, Leiden, 1938, pp. 136, 181ff.; idem, Ērānšahr, pp. 150, 157), or to a deliberate attempt to identify the Avestan river Raŋhā (Arang, q.v.), said to flow westward, with a stream in the west, where the name Arvand/Alvand was already well known (cf. Ḥamza, apud Yāqūt, II, p. 551, where Ārang is given as the Persian name of the Tigris). However, a number of scholars have accepted the designation of the Tigris as Arvand-rūd in New Persian as correct (Markwart, Ērānšahr, ibid.; Pūr-Dāwūd, Yašthā I, pp. 223-24; West, SBE 5, pp. 172 n. 6, 216 n. 3, 223 n. 2), although there are strong reasons to doubt its correctness. -- read more
|Khorramshahr is a port city in Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran. It is approximately 10 kilometers north of Abadan. The city extends to the right bank of the Arvand Roud waterway near its confluence with the Karun river. Estimates for the population vary widely between 338,922 (2006) and 624,321 (2005).|
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