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IRAN FLAG: A National Historical Perspective


By Davood N. Rahni





-Whereas a Flag is said to symbolize the beliefs and aspirations of a nation throughout her eternal life,

-Whereas a Flag is an icon that represents the cultural and historical identity, integrity and heritage of a nation,

-and, Whereas a Flag is the manifestation of a nation's independence, pride, aspirations perseverance, and her unique lifestyles and norms,


It is henceforth resolved that,


The people of Iran comprised of 75 millions in the Country and up to five millions in Diaspora adopt the above historical three colored (Green-White-Red) Flag as the official flag of Iran until such time when through a democratic referendum the Nation decides as to a possible insignia emblem if any for the center of their flag.


Faravahar, the best known symbol of Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of Iran still practiced by a few hundred thousand and revered by most Iranians, is perhaps the oldest icon in the history of Iran tracing back to nearly four thousand years.



The mythological etymology and symbolic meanings for the Flag are as follows:



The Lion as inscribed in Persepolis (circa 555 BCE)


Color Green         

Appreciation of natural esthetics and rebirth. Green is a sacred color in Islam attributed to Mohammad's descendents and their oppressions; green is also denoted in Pire-Sabz (the green pontiff), the Zoroastrian Pilgrimage near Yazd. Recently, it is the egalitarian color of choice to unite the grassroots to seek the rule of law, freedom, justice and equality.

 Color White

Friendship, reconciliation, peace, purity, passage from the material world, Zoroaster's favorite sacred color 

 Color Red

Sacrifice, revolution, martyrdom, tinkering and dynamic thinking paradigm safeguarding the Country's and Nation's sovereignty, honor and integrity


For the lion and sword and notwithstanding its political implications

Lion: Bravery, magnificence

Sun: Warmth, source of energy and life, continuity

Sword: Resistance, strength, triumph, resilience



Pishdadian and Kianian Dynasties ( before circa 750 BCE)



The first legendary Flag of Iran is said to be the Derafshe Kaviani. It was made of a long rectangular leather apron as used by national hero Kaveh the ironsmith during the reign of King Fereidoun.  Ferdowsi the Persian Homer referred to this leather apron as the symbol of Iranian independence, resistance, resilience and the revolutionary momentum of the masses revolt against evil invaders. This Flag was decorated with yellow, magenta and scarlet silk string tassels.  Kaveh was later pronounced Kavak in Sassanid  Pahlavi language meaning glorious, and so the Derafshe Kaviani was also called, the Glorious Flag of Iran.  



Achaemeniads Empire (559-323 BCE)



During the Archenemies, especially the Cyrus era, the Persian Empire Flag was made of up of a kinglike image, rectangular in shape, split into four equivalent triangles. Each two of these four triangles had the same color. The national Iranian Flag was, however, the same as the Derafshe Kaviani as cited earlier. 


Falcon Standard of Cyrus



Sassanids Dynasty (224-642 CE)



The Sassanid Empire Map



The Flag at this historical juncture was again made of rectangular leather, covered with thin layer of silk ornamented with jewels, in the center of which there was a four cornered star, pointing to the four corners of the world. This is the same star referred to as Akhtare Kaviani (the Kaviani star) by Ferdowsi in the epics of Shahnameh (the Book of Kings). This Flag was larger than the original Derafshe Kaviani installed on a long javelin, the tip of which was shown above the flag. At the bottom of this flag there were woven strings of yellow, magenta and scarlet, hanging from them were large jewels.



The Iranian Flag after the advent of Islam (650-900 CE)



Although there was no universally accepted flag in Iran at the time, one should nonetheless cite the existence of two flags that ultimately became symbols of resistance against the Arabian Islamic invaders:


  1. Moslem Khorasani who led the resistance struggle against the invaders mostly in eastern Iran's Khorasan and central Asia, used a large rectangular Flag in solid black and with no other symbols on it.

  2. Bobak Khorram Din, who primarily led the resistance struggle against the Arab invaders along the Caspian Sea in today's Mazandaran and Guilan, employed a large rectangular Flag in solid red with no other symbols on it.


It is believed that the two above plain Flags had no figurative or other expressive symbols on them, since Islam, denouncing the worship of idols, had strongly forbidden against such symbols.



Ghaznavi Kings (998-1052 CE)




Sultan Mahmoud Ghanavi


Sultan Mahmoud Ghaznavi, the founder of the first Persian dynasty after the Arab invasion who reinstated the use of symbolic expressions on the Iranian Flag.  This solid rectangular black Flag had in its center inscribed a golden moon.


Sultan Mahmoud Ghazavi is also credited as the first, whom inspired by Lion's inscription on the walls of Perspolis and silverware left from 2600 years ago, began using the lion as a national symbol. It was indeed during Sultan Mahmoud's rein when an archeological plate with a lion inscribed on it, a sun on its shoulders, and its right hand raised, was excavated in Rey. We now have historical evidence to conclude that although both the lion and the sun emerged on our Flag 700 years ago, the lion image alone had appeared on the Iranian Flag from at least 950 years ago. We must also emphasize that the Lion and the sun were inscribed on the walls of Persepolis 2500 years ago.


Old Ghaznavid Flag circa 1000


Many scholars believe Iranians used the sun to represent a reemergence of Mitra in their culture after the advent of Islam, as the use of figurative imagery of Mitra herself was prohibited by Islamic decree. In Mehrism/Mithraism's ascension to paradise, the fourth step is attributed to lion and the sixth one attributed to the sun.  It is believed that most ubiquitously found saint shrines and mausoleums in Iran of today are built on Mithras and Mehr temples before Islam.



The lion as icons for Iranians


As eluded to earlier the lion symbolized power, decisiveness, and strong leadership with justice and equity in mind since antiquity. Again with the advent of Islam and the adoption of Shiisim in Iran, this lion was manifested with close association to Ali, the Prophet Mohammad's cousin, thus the Ali's lion (shire Morteza Ali) as known in the Medieval Iranian literature. Although the Atabakan-e Pars and Khawrizmshaian dynasties at times utilized Flags that were black or red, the lion, nonetheless, remained an integral component of their Flag.  The sun for Iranians has remained a symbol of permanence, energy, life, light and illumination and enlightenment, cleanliness and absolution, the driving force behind the cycles of animals and plants. It has been regarded as the celestial body that plays a crucial role in human life since pre-historic antiquity. Sun as the symbol of Mithraism, Mazdaism, Monism and Mehr faiths in Persia preceded Christianity for almost 1400 years; Mithraism is said by some to be the precursor of Christianity, as evident by archeological ruins in the lower level of the Vatican.  


The Safavid Dynasty (1502-1736 CE)



Iran Safavid Dynasty Map


Shah Esmail killing Uzbek leader Mohammad Sheybani in a battle near Merv, 1510


The Safavids were the descendents of Sheik Joneid, who himself was one of Sheikh Safiuddin Ardebili's grandsons. There is evidence that the lion and sun symbol appeared on Sheikh Joneid's Flag. One can therefore recognize the regular and continuous use of the lion and the sun on Iranian Flag representing the national identity since 1400 CE, notwithstanding the inevitable dynastic changes in the government. Among the Safavid kings, Shah Esmail and Shah Tahmasb were the only ones who adopted Flags without the lion and the sun. Shah Esmail's Flag was triangular green with a moon on top, while Shah Tahmasb's was a green triangle with a sheep on top, since he was born in Farvardin (Capricorn zodiac).



The Afsharieh Dynasty (173-1805)


The Iranian Flag had one solid color: black, red or green since the Sassanids through the Safavids. Nader Shah Afhar removed the black and replaced it with white while maintaining the other two, red and green. He still maintained the triangular geometry of the Flag with the lion and the sun but no sword in the lion's hand.


The Zandieh (1750-1794 CE)


This was a very short period in Iranian history and we do not know what their Flag looked like.


The Qajar Dynasty (1779-1924 CE)



The Iranian Flag became a four-cornered rectangle for the first time one during the reign of Agha Mohammad Khan. The triangular shaped Flag therefore, as inspired  from the Tazian (Arab) invasion of nearly a millennium earlier, was finally put to oblivion. This King is the one who integrated in the two-edged Ali'sword as it had appeared in certain Safavid era Flags with the lion and the sun, thus the lion, sun and sword as we still have it integral of the Flag today. The sword was always regarded as a symbol for power, justice and people's resistance, and thus had socio-cultural but equally significant religious meaning.


A royal crown appeared above the lion for a short period during the Qajar Fath-ali shah.


 It was during the Mohammad Shah reign that the three colored flag (horizontal equal stripes of green on top, white in the middle, and green on bottom) and a lion, sun and sword as inscribed or evolved in our history for at least over 2500 years, was officially chartered as the Flag representing the Nation of Iran (Persia) worldwide.  

During Naseer-eddin Shah, the crown, as it had for a short period been accepted, was removed, presumably to differentiate the national Flag from the monarchy.

Mozaffar-eddin Shah officially endorsed the Mashrootiat (Monarchy system) as adopted in part from the French and Belgian systems of government and consistent with the unique cultural and religious traditions in the country. The new 1906 Constitution cites in its Fifth Amendment Article:

The Official Flag of Iran is the three striped colored green-white-red with a lion and sun

in its center. No mention of the royal crown is cited herein.





The Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979)

This Flag remained the official Flag during the reign of Pahlavi.



During the Pahlavi reign, a royal light blue Flag with a royal emblem as below developed for the sole purpose of representing the Pahlavi family.



During the latter decades of the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the three-colored only Flag without the lion, sun and the sword was regarded as the National Flag ( Parchame Melli) and flown at full staff by the retailers and private sectors, especially during national holidays




This three-colored flag remains the most commonly accepted flag by most Iranians until there is the opportunity for a national referendum when the faith of a central insignia be decided. Neither the lion sword and the sun, nor the current Arabic phrases on the current flag were ever ratified by the nation through such referendums.


The Islamic Republic era (1979-)


In 1979, the newly established Islamic republic of IRAN removed the lion and the sun, and replaced it with a calligraphic Arabic word design in the Flag center that could either be read as Allah (GOD) and or Laelaha Ellallah (there is no God but one almighty God). Then, a repetitious word Allaho Akbar (God is the greatest) was placed along the white stripe in both the green and the red sections.


For a short period in 1979-80, the three color only was the sole flag of Iran. The same had also been regarded as the National flag of Iran during the Pahlavi rein for over three decades.







533 - 330 BCE



330 - 247 BCE



247 BC. - 224 AD



224 - 651 CE

Arab Invasion


645 CE

Omavian and Abbasian


749 - 932 CE



866 - 903 CE



819 - 999 CE

Al Bouyeh


945 - 1055 CE



977 - 1186 CE



1038 - 1194  CE



1077 - 1231 CE

Mongol invasion to Iran


1220 CE



1256 - 1353 CE



1314 - 1393 CE



1370 - 1506 CE



1380 - 1468 CE



1501 - 1732 CE



1734 - 1796 CE



1750 - 1794 CE



1779 - 1924 CE



1924 - 1979 CE

The Islamic Revolution


1979 CE





Some Organizations in the Iranian American Community of nearly 2 million strong have adopted the Flag below to represent their nostalgic cultural ties to their motherland of origin, while reaffirming their commitment to their adopted land.







A Flag as it continues to evolve throughout the history of nation does belong to the diverse nation as a whole. For instance, the historical three-colored green-white-red Flag of Iran, and the  lion-sun-sword in its center if ratified by a referendum, belongs to ALL people of Iranian heritage. So, if this Flag is also adopted by political organizations as their symbols, this in and of itself would not exclude its continuous use and proprietorship by the Nation. The political establishment and specific forms of government come and go in history, but a nation's legacy, as exemplified by its values, norms, symbols and aspirations remains eternal.


The Author is Davood N. Rahni, Ph.D. ( An excerpt of this flag chronology was in part presented by Dr. Zia Ghavami at a Persian Heritage organizational meeting of 2005



Literature cited:


1.  This article is in part the translation of the original article on the History of Iranian

     Flag in this issue of PHM by Dr. Zia Ghavami, M.D.. 

2.  Lion and the sun emblem, the three thousand years old symbol By Nasser Entegha

     Iranica Encyclopedia Ehsan Yarshater Columbia University Project

3.  The History of lion and the sun By Ahmad Kassravi

4.  The Iranian Flag and the its lion/sun emblem  by Saeed Nafissi

5.  The Mazdisna Literature  Ostad Ebrahim Pourdavood

6.  The History of Iranian Flag by Dr. Nosratollah Teymourtash

7.  The Persian History by Dr. Mohammad Moein

8.  The Iranian Constitution (1907) The Iranian Parliament

9.  The Ancient Iranian History Moshiroddolah Pirnia

10. The Poetry Anthology Ahmad Shamloo

11. The current Official Flag of Iran:

12. The Iranian Flags:

13. Historical Flags of Iran:

14. The Ethnic Flags of Iran:

15. History of Iranian Flags Directory

15. This article was originally published in numerous references back in 2005 such as


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