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Photos: The Iranian constitutional Revolution of 1905-1911


The Persian or Iranian Constitutional Revolution (in Persian: Mashrutiyyat or Enghelab-e Mashruteh) took place between 1905 and 1911. The revolution led to the establishment of a parliament in Persia (Iran).

A group of constitutionalist prisoners at Bagh Shah, Tehran

The establishment of a constitutional regime in Persia was the chief objective of the Revolution of 1323-29/1905-11. Like any other major revolution, the Constitutional Revolution in Persia encompassed a broad spectrum of ideas and objectives, reflecting diverse intellectual trends, social backgrounds, and political demands. At the time even the text of the Constitution itself did not have universal support. Yet, in spite of ideological ambiguities, the Revolution remains an epoch-making episode in the modern history of Persia because of its political achievements and its enduring social and cultural consequences. As a modern revolution, it was aimed at dislodging the old order by means of popular action and by advocacy of the tenets of liberalism, secularism, and nationalism. For the first time in the course of modern Persian history, the revolutionaries sought to replace arbitrary power with law, representative government, and social justice and to resist the encroachment of imperial powers with conscious nationalism, popular activism, and economic independence. Constitutionalists also tried to curb the power of the conservative religious establishment through modern education and judicial reforms. By centralizing the state, they sought to reduce the power of the tribal and urban notables. The greater sense of nationhood that emerged out of the Revolution has remained essential to the modern Persian identity. (read more on Iranica)

A group of constitutionalist gathered outside British embassy in Tehran

Sattar Khan (October 20, 1866 - November 17, 1914), honorarily titled National Commander.
A pivotal figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution and considered a national hero.

Baqer Khan (1870 - November 12, 1911), honorarily National Leader.
A key figure in the Iranian Constitutional Revolution

A group of constitutionalist fighters who captured Tehran from Mohammd Ali Shah.
Seated: Sardar As'ad and Yeprem Khan Davidian

Sardar As'ad II (1856-1917) was an Iranian revolutionary, a leader of Bakhtiari Haft Lang tribe, and one of the primary figures of the Persian Constitutional Revolution. In 1909, Bakhtiari tribal forces under his command successfully captured Tehran as part of the revolutionary campaign to force the central government to establish democratic reforms.

Yeprem Khan Davidian alsoYefrem Khan (1868-1912), was an Armenian revolutionary leader and national hero of Iran.


A group of constitutionalist clerics gathered outside British embassy in Tehran

A group of constitutionalist Shiite Muslim clerics. Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri later turned his back to the Constitutionalist movement and was executed for treason as a result.


Sheikh Fazlollah Nouri hanged in Tehran


Mohammd Ali Shah and Vladimir Liakhov few days before attacking the Parliament with cannons

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (21 June 1872 - 5 April 1925) was the Shah of Persia from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.

Vladimir Platonovitch Liakhov, a Russian Colonel (20 June 1869 - June 1919), was the commander of Persian Cossack Brigade during the rule of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar.

The building of Iranian Parliament

Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar at the opening of the first Iranian Parliament

Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar (23 March 1853 - 3 January 1907) was the fifth Qajar king of Iran. He reigned between the years 1896 and 1907. He is credited with the creation of the Iranian constitution, and often wrongly credited with the rise of the Persian Constitutional Revolution which took place immediately after his death.

A group of MPs in the first Iranian Parliament


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